Tuesday-9/4...GO TO CH 2: MOLECULES OF LIFE...
***There will never be an abundance of Homework-It is expected that all students  study and review 'at least'30 minutes/day. That is to be successful, and you will learn at least 1 new fact every day!
Do not think sport practice, clubs, etc will excuse you from your responsibilities in this class.
***Students...As stated several times in class, Anatomy is extremely rigorous and demanding and it is recommended to study and review at least 30 minutes per day for success in this course. There is no second chance for Honors as you get 0.5 weighted GPA extra to work harder. This webpage is 'mandatory' for your success with the textbook, which is now online as will be discussed in class.
  You may see me by appt. before school or  after school,  if you have a concern, not test redo. Please always talk with me first before you go home and I will try to work to strengthen your skills. The class is very medical-health career based and is very demanding...Grades are never to be discussed in e-mails...Accountability rests with the student.
Study groups are recommended before or after school certain days.

There are around eight thousand Anatomical Terms to learn in order to understand the Macroscopic and Microscopic structures that comprise the Human Body. This may seem a huge amount, but many ‘names’ are used in everyday language such as ‘brain’, ‘forearm’, ‘ear’ etc.

You will not say in the ER, 'I think I broke my thighbone...you will use Latin/Greek vocab that must be learned'...

Depending on where you go to university or college and which language you speak and study in, Anatomy is taught differently. This may be in the order, as in head to toe, superficial structures to deep or regional instead of single structures. The most common terms are in English or Latin nomenclatures. Either way, here are some techniques that will help you memorize this new language:

  1. Organization: when you make a study schedule and allocate time for learning Anatomy Terms, make sure you calculate the approximate time you will need to learn the new words as you go through each new chapter. Start with the first lesson and use the time it took you as an estimate, adjusting the time slot as you go. If you don’t learn the terms properly up front, you will have difficulty understanding the theory and others will have difficulty understanding you!
  2. Visualization: Although everyone has their own way of doing things, the first time you see a particular area of the body, be it on a Cadaver or in an Anatomy Atlas, you need to get your bearings; take a look for long enough so that you can visualize the area in your head. Even if you go to practicals, it is a good idea to go over what you learned at home, both before and after, to make sure you go in prepared to follow the instructor and to solidify your knowledge and ensure your understanding after.
  3. Memorization: Using your Anatomy textbook or Mr. Katz's suggestions, either online or in print, start with the larger structures and then when you feel you know them go onto the smaller ones. Do this several times and then move on once you have tested yourself. Here are some techniques that will make learning each to words quicker and easier.
    • Link the word to the structure by creating a mental picture
    • Find the meaning of the word (which is usually Latin or Greek) using prefixes,roots, and suffixes.
    • Break the word down and make it recognizable for yourself using class mnemonic tips ...
    • Create your own abbreviations, songs, poems, acronyms etc. Basically if it works for you, it works!
    • Write the words out as your learn them, this will help with memorization and with spelling!
    • Use flashcards, either in print, online or homemade, so you can remember and examine yourself!
  4. Examination: Give yourself a little exam once you have memorized the words. Take a small scrap of paper or a post it note and cover the labels. If you can’t remember some of the words go back and repeat the steps from ‘Memorization’. Use family and/or friends for support with this!

Author: Dr. Alexandra Sieroslawska

Anatomy Terms Podcast.MP3

Scientific Method...

Do Background Research: Rather than starting from scratch in putting together a plan for answering your question, you want to be a savvy scientist using library and Internet research to help you find the best way to do things and insure that you don't repeat mistakes from the past.
Steps of the Scientific Method

Homeostasis: ( text p. 12)...a state of equilibrium...regulated physiological processes including body temperature...
***Click the following link for your test Friday...

Metabolism:( text p. 14)...The sum of all the chemical reactions in your body...
2 types:
Anabolism: complex molecules constructed from simpler ones(proteins)...
 Catabolism: complex molecules broken down into simpler ones( carbohydrates)...
click the link below for your test Friday...
***Click on link below for summary of metabolism...

***A suffix in Anatomy that represents a person is ist...(example-oncologist for cancer, biologist-for life science)
***A suffix for the study of something is logy...(example-oncology for cancer, Biology for life science).

To understand learning, you have to be clear on what stimuli and responses are. So memorize and understand the following:

  • Stimuli are inputs.
  • Responses are outputs.

Stimuli (usually) activate one or more of the senses. Stimuli can be internal as well as external. Internal stimuli signal the state of the body. Some examples of external stimuli: visual stimuli, like the screen in front of you; click of the keys; touch stimuli, like the feel of the keys under your fingertips. Some examples of internal stimuli: the feeling you describe as hunger, the churning sensation you experience when anxious or afraid.

Responses are actions of the body: muscle contractions, gland secretions, or brain actions. Examples of responses include: muscle movements, like pressing a key with a finger; the product of muscle movements, like speaking; glands secreting, like salivation or perspiration or increased adrenalin flow inside the body; brain reactions, like changes in the EEG ("brain waves").

  • Q1. Mark each of the following with the alternative they match best:
    • A. stimulus
    • B. response
    • C. neither stimulus nor response
  1. saying "I feel happy"
  2. the letters you see in this sentence
  3. taste of food in the mouth
  4. learning
  5. searching for and eating food
  6. performance
Ask me for answers if they do this 'challenge'...

Only 2 students asked me??

    Here are the answers:
  1. Mark each of the following with the alternative they match best:
    1. saying "I feel happy"......................... B. response
    2. the letters you see in this sentence.. A. stimulus
    3. taste of food in the mouth................. A. stimulus
    4. learning............................................ C. neither stimulus nor response
    5. searching for and eating food........... B. response
    6. performance...................................... B. response


Levels of organization...
Chemicals-organelles-cells-tissues-organs-organ systems-organism...
Body systems (11)...
Short videos (2)
Video from today is above and 1 link below!...
https://youtu.be/F1ljKpP2rHQ...Levels of organization...

It is convenient to consider the structures of the body in terms of fundamental levels of organization that increase in complexity: subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems,and organisms.

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***Below is the video link from today...
Video notes are above!!

Integumentary system– (skin, hair, nails) Forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissues from injury. Houses cutaneous receptors, sweat glands, oil glands, and synthesizes vitamin D.

Skeletal system– (bones, joints) Supports and protects the body’s organs. Provides a framework muscles use (movement). Bones also store minerals and create blood cells.

Muscular system– (skeletal muscles) Maintains posture and produces movement (locomotion). Produces heat.

Lymphatic system– (red bone marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen, lymph nodes) Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. Returns leaked fluid from blood vessels to the blood and disposes debris within the lymphatic stream.

Respiratory system– (nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, lung) Removes carbon dioxide and continually supplies blood with oxygen. Gaseous exchanges occur in the respiratory system (lungs).

Digestive system– (oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus) Breaks down food to be absorbed and eliminates indigestible waste.

Nervous system– (brain, spinal cord, nerves) Control system of the body, responds to internal and external changes, activates muscles and glands.

Endocrine system– (pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovary, testis) Glands from the endocrine system secrete hormones that regulate many processes like growth, metabolism, and reproduction.

Cardiovascular system– (heart, blood vessels) The heart pumps blood and blood vessels transport it. Blood carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste and more throughout the body.

Urinary system– (kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra) Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates acid-base, electrolyte and WATER balance of blood.

Reproductive systems

MALE (prostate gland, penis, testis, scrotum, ductus deferens)

FEMALE (Mammary glands, ovary, uterus, vagina, uterine tube)

The main function of the reproductive system is to produce offspring. Sex hormone and sperm are produced by the male testes. Male ducts and glands help deliver the sperm. Ovaries produce female sex hormones and eggs. Other female reproductive structures serve as sites of fertilization and development. For instance, the mammary glands produce milk for the newborn.

Podcast 1-A & P Regional Terms.MP3

Katz anatomical regional terms.docx Katz anatomical regional terms.docx
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Below is a link for a fun review of Regional terms!!

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Lab Safety video: https://youtu.be/MEIXRLcC6RA

Ch 1 Vocabulary(I always add more)...For Flashcards
***Everything from chapter 1 will carry into other chapters so we always incorporate past and present teachings into future ones...

1. Anatomical Position
2. Abdominal cavity
3. Abdominopelvic cavity
4. Anatomy
5. Anterior(ventral) body cavity
6. Cranial cavity
7. Deep
8. Frontal plane
9. Inferior
10. Lateral(Ipsi and Contra)
11. medial
12. Metric system
13. Nasal cavity
14. Oblique plane
15. Oral cavity
16. Orbital cavities
17. Pelvic cavity
18. Physiology
19. Posterior(dorsal) body cavity
20. Sagittal plane(Mid and Para)
21. Spinal cavity
22. Superficial
23. Superior
24. Thoracic cavity
25. Transverse plane

Know these suffixes...
-logy: the study of...ex. histology = study of tissues, physiology= study of hoe body parts function...
-ist: a person...ex. scientist, histologist, physiologist...don't mix them up!

***The 2 words below  are anatomy terms that will stay with you all year...COMMIT THEM TO MEMORY!!
Homeostasis: maintaining equilibrium in your body, such as body temperature...
Metabolism: the sum of all chemical reactions in the body...
You will get graded on spelling as this course can change a structure into a new one if misspelled.

Anatomical Position
anatomical position . The erect position of the body with the face directed forward, the arms at the side, and the palms of the hands facing forward, used as a reference in describing the relation of body parts to one another.
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Ipsilateral = same  side, Contralateral = opposite side, unilateral = 1 side, bilateral = 2 equal sides.
Sagittal = side, parasaggital = unequal side, midsaggital = right down the middle for 2 equal sides (bilateral).

***We start introducing common anatomical terms of location and direction...
Now apply them to the following diagram(text p.9)

***Know these 2 words:
Prone: face down, lying on your belly
Supine: lying on your back

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Label the 3 body planes to the left if you can...

***Remember to know your Right from your Left!

Anatomical Terms

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Anatomy prefixes-suffixes-roots.docx Anatomy prefixes-suffixes-roots.docx
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Systems of the body as we will learn them:Memorize them...
1. Integumentary...skin
2, Skeletal...bones...206
3. Muscular...muscles...600+
4. Nervous(and Senses)...CNS and PNS
5. Endocrine...hormones
6, Respiratory...Breathing
7. Blood-Cardiovascular...heart and vessels
8. Lymphatic(Immune)...Resistance
9. Digestive...Nutrition
10. Urinary...removal of wastes
11. Reproductive...sex organs

Anatomy & Physiology Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes

Start learning to memorize the entire list below!


 1.   a-   without or absence of: (asepsis, avascular tissue)

    2.   ab-   away from: (abduction)

    3.   acro- top or end: (acromion process)

    4.   ad-  to or towards: (adduction, adductor muscle)

    5.   –algia  pain: (neuralgia)

    6.   ambi-  both: (ambidexterous)

    7.   an-   without: (anaerobic respiration)

    8.   ante-  before, in front of: (antecerebellar)

    9.   anti-   against: (antibacterial, antibiotic, antidepressant)

    10. append-   to hang something: (appendicular-appendix)

    11. -ase enzyme: (amylase, lipase, carboxypeptidase)

    12. aud- hear: (auditory)

    13. auto- self: (autoimmune disorder)

    14. bi-   two: (bicuspid valve, bipolar disorder, bisexual)

    15. -blast   budding: (osteoblasts, blastocyst)

    16.  brady-   slow: (bradycardia)

    17.  carcin   cancer: (carcinoma, carcinogen)

    18.  cardi   heart: (pericardium, cardiac)

    19.  carp   wrist: (carpals)

    20.  -centesis   surgical puncture :(amniocentesis, thoracentesis)

    21. cephal- head: (cephalic artery)

    22. -cidal   killing : (gemacidal)

    23. -clast   broken: (osteoclasts)

    24. contra-   against: (contraceptive device, contralateral)

    25. corpus – body: (corpus callosum)

    26. cut-   skin: (subcutaneous)

    27. cyst-   bladder : (cystoscopy)

    28. cyto-   cell: (cytology)

    29. -cyte  cell: (osteocyte, leukocyte, erythrocyte)

    30.  dendr-   tree: (dendrite)

    31.  dent-  tooth: (dentist, dentition)

    32. derm-   skin: (dermis)

    33. di-   two: (disaccharide)

    34. diastol-   dilation: (diastole, diastolic)))

    35. ecto-   outside: (ectopic pregnancy)

    36. -ectomy   excision or surgical removal: (appendectomy, hysterectomy

    37. -emia   blood condition, something in the blood: (hypercholesterolemia)

    38. endo-  within: (endoplasmic reticulum, endoderm)

    39. epi-    upon: (epithelial tissue, epicardium, epidermal)

    40. erythr-   red: (erythrocyte)

    41. exo-   outside: (exocrine gland, exoskeleton)

    42. extra-    outside: (extracellular)

    43. flex- bend: (flexors)

    44. gastr-   stomach: (gastric gland, gastroscopy)

    45. -gram   something written: (echocardiogram)

    46. gust- taste (gustatory nerve)

    47. hema-  blood: (hematoma)

    48. hepat-  liver: (hepatic duct, hepatitis, hepatocyte)

    49. homeo-   same: (homeostasis)

    50. hydr-   water: (hydrostatic pressure, hydrocephaly)

    51. hyper-   above: (hypertonic)

    52. hypo-    below: (hypotonic)

    53. hyster-   uterus: (hysterectomy)

    54. -ia   condition of diseased or abnormal state: (ischemia)

    55. infra-  under; below: (infraorbital foramen)

    56. inter-    between: (interphase, intercostal muscle)

    57. intra-   inside: (intramembranous ossification, intracellular fluid)

    58. -ism   state of: (hyperthyroidism)

    59. iso-    equal: (isotonic, isometric)

    60. -itis    inflammation:  (myocarditis)

    61. lact-   milk: (lactation)

    62. leuko-  white: (leukocyte)

    63. -logy   study of: (physiology, biology)

    64. macro-   large: (macrobiotic, macrocephaly, macrophage)

    65. mal-   bad: (malformation, malady)

    66. -mania   madness or insane desire: (egomania)

    67. -megaly   enlargement: (acromegaly)

    68. meso-    middle: (mesoderm)

    69. meta-  after: (metacentric chromosome, metacarpals)

    70. micro-   small: (microbiology, microvilli)

 71. mono-  one: (monosaccharide)

    72. morph-   shape or form: (polymorhic neutrophils)

    73. multi-    many: (multifactorial, multinucleate cells)

    74. myo-   muscle: (myofibril, myoglobin)

    75. necr-   death: (necrotic tissue)

    76. neo-   new: (neonatal)

    77. nephr-   kidney: (nephron)

    78. neur-   nerve: (neuron, neurohypophysis)

    79. ocul- eye: (ocular nerve)

    80. olfact-   to smell: (olfactory bulbs)

    81. -ologist   one who studies and practices: (cardiologist, gynecologist)

    82. -oma   tumor or swelling: (carcinoma)

    83. -opia   vision: (myopia)

    84. -opsy   to view: (autopsy)

    85.  opthalm- eye: (ophthalmologist)

    86. -orrhea   flow excessive discharge: (amenorrhea, gonorrhea)

    87. ortho- correct: (orthopedics)

    88. -osis   abnormal increase in production: (leukocytosis)

    89. oss-   bone: (osseous tissue)

    90. oste-   bone: (osteoblasts)

    91. -ostomy   creation of an artificial opening: (ileostomy)

    92. -otomy    cut into or incision:  (appendectomy)

    93. -oxia   oxygen: (anoxia)

    94. palp- feel or touch: (palpate)

    95. para-  beside: (parathyroid glands)

    96. patho-  disease: (pathogen, pathology,pathophysiology)

    97. -pathy  disease: (cardiomyopathy)

    98. pector-  chest: (pectoralis major)

    99. pedi- child: (pediatrician)

    100.           ped- foot: (pedicle)

    101.           peri-   surrounding: (pericardial, perianal, periaortic)

    102.           phleb-   vein: (phlebitis, phlebotomy)

    103.           phys- nature: (physician)

    104.           plasm- substance: (cytoplasm)

    105.           pleur-  rib: (pleural membrane, pleural fluid)

    106.           pneum- breath: (pneumonia)

    107.           pod-   foot: (podiatrist)

    108.           poly-   many: (polyunsaturated, polydactyly)

    109.           post-  after: (posttraumatic stress, postnasal drip)

    110.           pre-   before: (premature, prenatal)

    111.           proct-  rectum: (proctological exam, proctologist)

    112.           pseudo-    false: (pseudostratified epithelium, pseudodementia)

    113.           psych-   mind: (psychiatrist)

    114.           pylor-   gatekeeper: (pyloric sphincter)

    115.           ren–  kidney: (renal failure, renin)

    116.           retro-   back or behind: (retro-virus, retrosternal)

    117.           rhea- flow or gush: (amenorrhea, galactorrhea)

    118.           sacchar-   sugar: (monosaccharides)

    119.           sarco-  flesh: (sarcoplasm, sarcolemma)

    120.           -sclerosis   hardening: (multiple sclerosis)

    121.           -scope   instrument used for visual examination: (gastroscope)

    122.           –scopy   visual examination: (colonoscopy)

    123.           semi-  half: (semilunar valves, semicircular canal)

    124.           -sepsis   infection: (urosepsis)

    125.           sept – poison, from rot: (septic, septicemia)

    126.           somat–   body: (somatic cells)

    127.           -spasm   sudden involuntary muscle contraction: (muscle spasm)

    128.           stasis-   standing still: (homeostasis)

    129.           sub-   under or below: (subarachnoid space, subclavian artery)

    130.           super-   over or above: (superior vena cava)

    131.           tachy-  rapid: (tachycardia)

    132.           tact- touch: (tactile)

    133.    tensive- pressure (hypertensive)

    134.           tetra-   four: (tetracycline, tetraiodothyronine)

    135.    thorac(o)- chest (thorax)

    136.           -tomy   cutting: (anatomy, appendectomy)

    137.           tox- poison: (toxicology)

    138.           trans-   through, across, beyond: (transfusion, transmission)

    139.           tri-    three: (triglyceride, triiodothyronine)

    140.           uni-    one: (unipolar neurons)

    141.           ventr-  belly or stomach: (ventricle, ventral view)

142.           vill-   hair: (villi, microvilli)