***There will never be an abundance of Homework-It is expected that all students  study and review 'at least'30 minutes/day. That is to be successful, and you will learn at least 1 new fact every day!
Do not think sport practice, clubs, etc will excuse you from your responsibilities in this class.
***Students...As stated several times in class, Anatomy is extremely rigorous and demanding and it is recommended to study and review at least 30 minutes per day for success in this course. There is no second chance for Honors as you get 0.5 weighted GPA extra to work harder. This webpage is 'mandatory' for your success with the textbook, which is now online as will be discussed in class.
  You may see me by appt. before school or  after school,  if you have a concern, not test redo. Please always talk with me first before you go home and I will try to work to strengthen your skills. The class is very medical-health career based and is very demanding...Grades are never to be discussed in e-mails...Accountability rests with the student.
Study groups are recommended before or after school certain days.

There are around eight thousand Anatomical Terms to learn in order to understand the Macroscopic and Microscopic structures that comprise the Human Body. This may seem a huge amount, but many ‘names’ are used in everyday language such as ‘brain’, ‘forearm’, ‘ear’ etc.

You will not say in the ER, 'I think I broke my thighbone...you will use Latin/Greek vocab that must be learned'...

Depending on where you go to university or college and which language you speak and study in, Anatomy is taught differently. This may be in the order, as in head to toe, superficial structures to deep or regional instead of single structures. The most common terms are in English or Latin nomenclatures. Either way, here are some techniques that will help you memorize this new language:

  1. Organization: when you make a study schedule and allocate time for learning Anatomy Terms, make sure you calculate the approximate time you will need to learn the new words as you go through each new chapter. Start with the first lesson and use the time it took you as an estimate, adjusting the time slot as you go. If you don’t learn the terms properly up front, you will have difficulty understanding the theory and others will have difficulty understanding you!
  2. Visualization: Although everyone has their own way of doing things, the first time you see a particular area of the body, be it on a Cadaver or in an Anatomy Atlas, you need to get your bearings; take a look for long enough so that you can visualize the area in your head. Even if you go to practicals, it is a good idea to go over what you learned at home, both before and after, to make sure you go in prepared to follow the instructor and to solidify your knowledge and ensure your understanding after.
  3. Memorization: Using your Anatomy textbook or Mr. Katz's suggestions, either online or in print, start with the larger structures and then when you feel you know them go onto the smaller ones. Do this several times and then move on once you have tested yourself. Here are some techniques that will make learning each to words quicker and easier.
    • Link the word to the structure by creating a mental picture
    • Find the meaning of the word (which is usually Latin or Greek) using prefixes,roots, and suffixes.
    • Break the word down and make it recognizable for yourself using class mnemonic tips ...
    • Create your own abbreviations, songs, poems, acronyms etc. Basically if it works for you, it works!
    • Write the words out as your learn them, this will help with memorization and with spelling!
    • Use flashcards, either in print, online or homemade, so you can remember and examine yourself!
  4. Examination: Give yourself a little exam once you have memorized the words. Take a small scrap of paper or a post it note and cover the labels. If you can’t remember some of the words go back and repeat the steps from ‘Memorization’. Use family and/or friends for support with this!

Author: Dr. Alexandra Sieroslawska

Wednesday-8/15...CW: Rules, cont'd...
Syllabus issued(It would be great if you printed it out and signed it)
Quizlet discussed...
Textbook discussed...
Index card profile

HW: obtain supplies in syllabus...get what is requested...no spiral notebooks!
Monday-8/13...No students...It is expected that this page becomes part of your daily routine and it is mobile friendly...
Tuesday-8/14...First day for students...
CW: ***  Rules, Rituals, and Routines...
         ***Planners issued ($5.00 replacement)...
         ***Syllabus issued...Or print out from home page...
HW: Obtain supplies per syllabus by Friday!
***On contact me tab above, sign up for REMIND!
anatomical position . The erect position of the body with the face directed forward, the arms at the side, and the palms of the hands facing forward, used as a reference in describing the relation of body parts to one another.(text p. 5)
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 Label the 3 body planes to the left if you can...

***Remember to know your Right from your Left!

Anatomical Terms


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***Everything from chapter 1 will carry into other chapters so we always incorporate past and present teachings into future ones...
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Anatomy Terms Podcast.MP3

Anatomy prefixes-suffixes-roots.docx Anatomy prefixes-suffixes-roots.docx
Size : 18.794 Kb
Type : docx
ously review...
***Remember: Tutoring most mornings, 5th pd enrichment-no tutoring Friday afternoon...
***4 New Words: Superficial...towards the surface
                                   Deep...below the surface
                                   Proximal...towards the point of attachment(arms and legs, only)
                                   Distal...farther away from point of attachment(arms and legs, only)

***Structure terms not on the list: Costal-Rib
                                                                      Lumbar-lower back
                                                                      Sternal-middle of thorax-sternum = breastbone
Systems of the body as we will learn them:Memorize them...
1. Integumentary...skin
2, Skeletal...bones...206
3. Muscular...muscles...600+
4. Nervous(and Senses)...CNS and PNS
5. Endocrine...hormones
6, Respiratory...Breathing
7. Blood-Cardiovascular...heart and vessels
8. Lymphatic(Immune)...Resistance
9. Digestive...Nutrition
10. Urinary...removal of wastes
11. Reproductive...sex organs


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***We start introducing common anatomical terms of location and direction...
Now apply them to the following diagram(text p.9)

***Know these 2 words:
Prone: face down, lying on your belly
Supine: lying on your back
Homeostasis: maintaining equilibrium in your body, such as body temperature...
Metabolism: the sum of all chemical reactions in the body...
You will get graded on spelling as this course can change a structure into a new one if misspelled.

Know these suffixes...
-logy: the study of...ex. histology = study of tissues, physiology= study of hoe body parts function...
-ist: a person...ex. scientist, histologist, physiologist...don't mix them up!

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It is convenient to consider the structures of the body in terms of fundamental levels of organization that increase in complexity: subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems,and organisms.

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Ipsilateral = same  side, Contralateral = opposite side, unilateral = 1 side, bilateral = 2 equal sides.
Sagittal = side, parasaggital = unequal side, midsaggital = right down the middle for 2 equal sides (bilateral).


Anatomy & Physiology Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes

Start learning to memorize the entire list below!


 1.   a-   without or absence of: (asepsis, avascular tissue)

    2.   ab-   away from: (abduction)

    3.   acro- top or end: (acromion process)

    4.   ad-  to or towards: (adduction, adductor muscle)

    5.   –algia  pain: (neuralgia)

    6.   ambi-  both: (ambidexterous)

    7.   an-   without: (anaerobic respiration)

    8.   ante-  before, in front of: (antecerebellar)

    9.   anti-   against: (antibacterial, antibiotic, antidepressant)

    10. append-   to hang something: (appendicular-appendix)

    11. -ase enzyme: (amylase, lipase, carboxypeptidase)

    12. aud- hear: (auditory)

    13. auto- self: (autoimmune disorder)

    14. bi-   two: (bicuspid valve, bipolar disorder, bisexual)

    15. -blast   budding: (osteoblasts, blastocyst)

    16.  brady-   slow: (bradycardia)

    17.  carcin   cancer: (carcinoma, carcinogen)

    18.  cardi   heart: (pericardium, cardiac)

    19.  carp   wrist: (carpals)

    20.  -centesis   surgical puncture :(amniocentesis, thoracentesis)

    21. cephal- head: (cephalic artery)

    22. -cidal   killing : (gemacidal)

    23. -clast   broken: (osteoclasts)

    24. contra-   against: (contraceptive device, contralateral)

    25. corpus – body: (corpus callosum)

    26. cut-   skin: (subcutaneous)

    27. cyst-   bladder : (cystoscopy)

    28. cyto-   cell: (cytology)

    29. -cyte  cell: (osteocyte, leukocyte, erythrocyte)

    30.  dendr-   tree: (dendrite)

    31.  dent-  tooth: (dentist, dentition)

    32. derm-   skin: (dermis)

    33. di-   two: (disaccharide)

    34. diastol-   dilation: (diastole, diastolic)))

    35. ecto-   outside: (ectopic pregnancy)

    36. -ectomy   excision or surgical removal: (appendectomy, hysterectomy

    37. -emia   blood condition, something in the blood: (hypercholesterolemia)

    38. endo-  within: (endoplasmic reticulum, endoderm)

    39. epi-    upon: (epithelial tissue, epicardium, epidermal)

    40. erythr-   red: (erythrocyte)

    41. exo-   outside: (exocrine gland, exoskeleton)

    42. extra-    outside: (extracellular)

    43. flex- bend: (flexors)

    44. gastr-   stomach: (gastric gland, gastroscopy)

    45. -gram   something written: (echocardiogram)

    46. gust- taste (gustatory nerve)

    47. hema-  blood: (hematoma)

    48. hepat-  liver: (hepatic duct, hepatitis, hepatocyte)

    49. homeo-   same: (homeostasis)

    50. hydr-   water: (hydrostatic pressure, hydrocephaly)

    51. hyper-   above: (hypertonic)

    52. hypo-    below: (hypotonic)

    53. hyster-   uterus: (hysterectomy)

    54. -ia   condition of diseased or abnormal state: (ischemia)

    55. infra-  under; below: (infraorbital foramen)

    56. inter-    between: (interphase, intercostal muscle)

    57. intra-   inside: (intramembranous ossification, intracellular fluid)

    58. -ism   state of: (hyperthyroidism)

    59. iso-    equal: (isotonic, isometric)

    60. -itis    inflammation:  (myocarditis)

    61. lact-   milk: (lactation)

    62. leuko-  white: (leukocyte)

    63. -logy   study of: (physiology, biology)

    64. macro-   large: (macrobiotic, macrocephaly, macrophage)

    65. mal-   bad: (malformation, malady)

    66. -mania   madness or insane desire: (egomania)

    67. -megaly   enlargement: (acromegaly)

    68. meso-    middle: (mesoderm)

    69. meta-  after: (metacentric chromosome, metacarpals)

    70. micro-   small: (microbiology, microvilli)

 71. mono-  one: (monosaccharide)

    72. morph-   shape or form: (polymorhic neutrophils)

    73. multi-    many: (multifactorial, multinucleate cells)

    74. myo-   muscle: (myofibril, myoglobin)

    75. necr-   death: (necrotic tissue)

    76. neo-   new: (neonatal)

    77. nephr-   kidney: (nephron)

    78. neur-   nerve: (neuron, neurohypophysis)

    79. ocul- eye: (ocular nerve)

    80. olfact-   to smell: (olfactory bulbs)

    81. -ologist   one who studies and practices: (cardiologist, gynecologist)

    82. -oma   tumor or swelling: (carcinoma)

    83. -opia   vision: (myopia)

    84. -opsy   to view: (autopsy)

    85.  opthalm- eye: (ophthalmologist)

    86. -orrhea   flow excessive discharge: (amenorrhea, gonorrhea)

    87. ortho- correct: (orthopedics)

    88. -osis   abnormal increase in production: (leukocytosis)

    89. oss-   bone: (osseous tissue)

    90. oste-   bone: (osteoblasts)

    91. -ostomy   creation of an artificial opening: (ileostomy)

    92. -otomy    cut into or incision:  (appendectomy)

    93. -oxia   oxygen: (anoxia)

    94. palp- feel or touch: (palpate)

    95. para-  beside: (parathyroid glands)

    96. patho-  disease: (pathogen, pathology,pathophysiology)

    97. -pathy  disease: (cardiomyopathy)

    98. pector-  chest: (pectoralis major)

    99. pedi- child: (pediatrician)

    100.           ped- foot: (pedicle)

    101.           peri-   surrounding: (pericardial, perianal, periaortic)

    102.           phleb-   vein: (phlebitis, phlebotomy)

    103.           phys- nature: (physician)

    104.           plasm- substance: (cytoplasm)

    105.           pleur-  rib: (pleural membrane, pleural fluid)

    106.           pneum- breath: (pneumonia)

    107.           pod-   foot: (podiatrist)

    108.           poly-   many: (polyunsaturated, polydactyly)

    109.           post-  after: (posttraumatic stress, postnasal drip)

    110.           pre-   before: (premature, prenatal)

    111.           proct-  rectum: (proctological exam, proctologist)

    112.           pseudo-    false: (pseudostratified epithelium, pseudodementia)

    113.           psych-   mind: (psychiatrist)

    114.           pylor-   gatekeeper: (pyloric sphincter)

    115.           ren–  kidney: (renal failure, renin)

    116.           retro-   back or behind: (retro-virus, retrosternal)

    117.           rhea- flow or gush: (amenorrhea, galactorrhea)

    118.           sacchar-   sugar: (monosaccharides)

    119.           sarco-  flesh: (sarcoplasm, sarcolemma)

    120.           -sclerosis   hardening: (multiple sclerosis)

    121.           -scope   instrument used for visual examination: (gastroscope)

    122.           –scopy   visual examination: (colonoscopy)

    123.           semi-  half: (semilunar valves, semicircular canal)

    124.           -sepsis   infection: (urosepsis)

    125.           sept – poison, from rot: (septic, septicemia)

    126.           somat–   body: (somatic cells)

    127.           -spasm   sudden involuntary muscle contraction: (muscle spasm)

    128.           stasis-   standing still: (homeostasis)

    129.           sub-   under or below: (subarachnoid space, subclavian artery)

    130.           super-   over or above: (superior vena cava)

    131.           tachy-  rapid: (tachycardia)

    132.           tact- touch: (tactile)

    133.    tensive- pressure (hypertensive)

    134.           tetra-   four: (tetracycline, tetraiodothyronine)

    135.    thorac(o)- chest (thorax)

    136.           -tomy   cutting: (anatomy, appendectomy)

    137.           tox- poison: (toxicology)

    138.           trans-   through, across, beyond: (transfusion, transmission)

    139.           tri-    three: (triglyceride, triiodothyronine)

    140.           uni-    one: (unipolar neurons)

    141.           ventr-  belly or stomach: (ventricle, ventral view)

142.           vill-   hair: (villi, microvilli)