Chapter Learning Outcomes: You should be able to do the following:

1. List the tissues in a bone.
2. Describe the structures of a long bone, and list the functions of each.
3. Discuss the major functions of bones.
4. Distinguish between the Axial and Appendicular skeletons, and name the parts of each.
5. Locate and identify the bones and the major features of the bones that compose the skull, vertebral column,          thoracic cage, pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, and lower limbs.
6. Classify joints and describe the actions of each.
8. Explain how skeletal muscles produce movements at joints, and identify several types of joint movements.
according to the type of tissue binding the bones together, describe their characteristics, and name examples of each.
7. Compare and contrast common skeletal disorders and diseases..
***To be successful with memorization-you must review daily up to 1 hour if the situation warrants...We will be singing, dancing, and reinforcing all lessons to fully succeed in memorization and application of body systems...Remember, our Frontal lobe is not fully developed until 25 yrs of age so I encourage you to review daily, as the course content increases in complexity,every quarter always integrating past knowledge...
Skeletal Disorders Project 2.docx Skeletal Disorders Project 2.docx
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each period will have a Director-Producer-Choreographer-Cinematographer...let the best video win!

Skeletal Project 2 Criteria:
***May do PPT or video not to exceed 2 minutes...
****For PPT: 8 slides max including title slide and references slide-title has names-date-pd-group # title and picture...
***Only bullets used-minimal text and real pic, not cartoon, on every slide...
***Do not include words you cannot pronounce or explain...
***For video: 2 min. describing your bone disorder/disease using pics if you can...
***If group member is prepared to pick up the slack and cover their part-know it all!!
***Will be in Media center Wed and present Thursday whether students are absent or not...

.Joints of the body: a connection where bones meet...Textbook Ch 4.4-pages 138-141...
***Short video...
***Fixed(Immovable)...Skull and pelvis...
a. Synarthroses...
a. Amphiarthroses-slightly movable...
b. Diarthroses-freely movable
Arthro = joint as in biology-organism as arthropod with jointed appendages-spiders, crustaceans...
***Joints video from today:
***Joint movements...(it's in ch 5 in our text but belongs in ch 4)...

***Terms of movement video:

***Ulnar Deviation and Radial DeviationUlnar deviation, otherwise known as ulnar flexion, is the movement of bending the wrist to the little finger, or ulnar bone, side. ... Radial deviation, otherwise known as radialflexion, is the movement of bending the wrist to the thumb, or radialbone, side.

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Opposition is the thumb movement that brings the tip of the thumb in contact with the tip of a finger. This movement is produced at the first carpometacarpal joint, which is a saddle joint formed between the trapezium carpal bone and the first metacarpal bone. Thumb opposition is produced by a combination of flexion and abduction of the thumb at this joint. Returning the thumb to its anatomical position next to the index finger is called reposition (see Figure below)

This multi-part image shows different types of movements that are possible by different joints in the body.

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***Condyloid (from text) is another name for ellipsoid joint.
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-articulating surfaces flat or slightly curved
-sliding or twisting
ex. wrist and ankle bones, sternum to clavicle


-cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with ring of bone and ligament
-rotation around central axis
ex. atlas, axis, proximal articulation of radius and ulna


-surface of one bone articulates with concave surface of another
-flexion and extension
ex. elbow, phalanges


-concave surface in one direction and convex in another
-back and forth, side to side
ex. thumb, 1st metacarpal and trapezium


-oval-shaped condyle of one bone articulates with elliptical cavity of another
-variety of movements, no rotation
ex. metacarpals and phalanges

Ball and Socket

ball-shaped head of one bone articulates with cup-shaped cavity of another
-all planes and rotation
-hip and shoulder

Podcast 6-Joints-Khalidah and Esperancia.MP3

Podcast 5-Appendicular skeleton-Aislyn and Caedru.MP3

***Assessments are the proof of your knowledge learned in this class...Applying the knowledge to your 'drawing' is a test of if you acquired the knowledge...The standards must be met or the drawing grade will not be applied or reduced if you can't answer questions  from class on your drawing...

***You may always work on group projects before school, after school, pd 5 lunch D enrichment or pd 6 by appt only with teacher permission...or just get tutoring...
 Body Tracing day 1...
Anterior labeled on top...
Cranium-Thorax-Vertebral column...
1. Always trace in pencil then darken using black sharpie, only
2. Never write structure names  ON THE diagram, only with a ruler to the perimeter of the diagram...
3. Work as a team organizing your body movements not to be in a team member's space
4. Time is crucial...Your tracing must be completed per class standards in 3 days-NO MORE! Absenteeism, tardy must not deter you from completion-if one is absent, you must take on the job of two!!
5. Bring in my webpage photos(b & w) to use for correct spelling,# of bones, etc.
6. What you label on the LEFT, you must label on the RIGHT!
7. GRADE: based on teamwork, professionalism, accuracy, neatness,time mgmt,  and knowledge
***You can NOT obtain a max grade for failing to follow directions! Know your bones-check your team members for accuracy...Those that do more...receive more...
HW: Study for Ch 4 formative quiz 2 on Friday-1st quiz of 2nd quarter...

Human Anatomy Charts - Inner Body Anatomy, Muscle Anatomy, and Reproductive Anatomy

Below is the Ribs/Appendicular  video from today...
***Ribs Song...
***Thoracic cavity song...
***Appendicular song...

***Short video...
***Hand and feet song...
***Foot Bones song...
***Carpal bones song...

Appendicular Skeleton...

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***Acetabulum...A  concave depression-The head of the femur meets with the pelvis at the acetabulum, forming the hip joint.

Talus...foot pivot bone like fulcrum of see saw 

Hands-Wrist-Fingers = 27 bones x2
Feet-Ankle-Toes = 26 bones x 2
***So as stated in class, 106 bones are in hands and feet of 206 bones...more than 50% bones found here...

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Podcast 7-Vertebral column-Pd 2-Taliya and Ciera.MP3

Podcast 6-Cranial Bones-Pd 2-Sahayla.MP3

***Hyoid Bone: This  AXIAL bone supports the tongue and is in your anterior cervical(neck)...
Related image

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Spinal song...
***Video from today...
***Scoliosis...'S' shaped spinal curvature

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***Kyphosis = Hunchback

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Lordosis = Swayback

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Vertebral column: 5 divisions to memorize:
1. Cervical vertebrae = 7
2. Thoracic vertebrae = 12
3. Lumbar vertebrae = 5
4. Sacral vertebrae(sacrum) = 5 fused = adult
5. Coccygeal(coccyx) = tailbone = 4 fused = 1 adult
Total vertebrae = 26...
***Remember C1 and C2-don't mix them up...C2 the axis has a process called the den that articulates with the atlas...
***Fact: Atlas was a titan who betrayed Zeus and was punished to bear the weight of the world on his our 1st vertebra is named Atlas because it supports our head, the center of our body...

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Katman Podcast 5-Long Bone Anatomy.MP3

Tuesday-10/2...CW: Long Bone Anatomy...draw and label-it is ok to bring in pics from my webpage but NEVER to post my page on social media...

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Ch. 4.2...Axial skeleton = skull, vertebral column, thorax...
HW: Read sec. 4.2 and check webvpage often...

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1. Axial Skeleton = Skull(Cranium)...22 Bones.. + 6 Middle ear bones - 28 bones...

 Hyoid Bone...1 Bone supports tongue

Vertebral column (spine,)...26 bones

 Thoracic Cage ...25 bones...

   Total Axial = 80 bones...

2. Appendicular Skeleton = Pectoral Girdle...4 bones

                                          Upper limbs (arms)...60 bones

                                          Pelvic Girdle...2 bones

                                           Lower limbs (legs)...60 bones

       Total Apopendicular = 126 bones...+ 80 bones = 206 Adult bones...

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***Know the 3 Sutures below!!
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***A process is an projection of bone...Below is Mastoid Process-mastoid has muscles attached for chewing which in anatomy is called 'Mastication' in the temporal bone...
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***Below is Zygomatic process in's an extension of zygomatic bone...

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The bones of the human skull, front and lateral

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Monday-10/1...CW:Make-up tests...
Grades begin to be posted 1st quarter...DO NOT ASK ME FOR EXTRA CREDIT...grades are non-negotiable...
Intro to Skeletal System...
Short video...
HW: read ch. 4.1 and check web page...
***Below are the video links from today...   skeletal summary   anatomy of Long bone

Ch 4.1  Vocabulary to Memorize
1. Articular cartilage
2. Bone marrow
3. Cortical bone(compact)
4. Diaphysis
5. Epiphyseal line-plate(growth)
6. Epiphysis
7. Hematopoiesis
8. Medullary cavity
9. Ossification
10. Osteoblasts
11. Osteoclasts
12. Osteocytes
13. Periosteum
14. Trabecular bone(spongy)

Overview of 5 bone types, long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid

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Bones to Memorize 

1.      Cranium                                          38. Suture

2.      Hyoid                                              39. Foramina

3.      Clavicle                                           40. Mastoid Process

4.      Scapulae                                         41. Foramen magnum

5.      Sternum                                          42. Lacrimal bones

6.      Humerus                                          43. Ethmoid

7.      Radius                                              44. Intervertebral disk

8.      Ulna                                                 45. Fontanel

9.      Pelvis                                                46. Meatus

10.  Femur                                               47. Costal Cartilage (ribs)

11.  Tibia                                                  48. Pelvic Girdle

12.  Fibula                                                 49. Pectoral Girdle

13.  Carpals                                               50. Talus

14.  Metacarpals

15.  Tarsals

16.  Metatarsals

17.  Phalanges

18.  Patella

19.  Frontal

20.  Parietal

21.  Temporal

22.  Occipital

23.  Nasal

24.  Vomer

25.  Zygomatic

26.  Maxillae

27.  Mandible

28.  Manubrium-Body-Xiphoid process

29.  Cervical vertebrae

30.  Atlas-Axis

31.  Thoracic vertebrae

32.  Lumbar vertebrae

33.  Sacrum

34.  Coccyx

35.  Ischium-Ilium-Pubis

36.  Calcaneus

37.  Ethmoid


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