Welcome to Quarter 2- Chapter 4-The Skeletal System...
Chapter Learning Outcomes: You should be able to do the following:

1. List the tissues in a bone.
2. Describe the structures of a long bone, and list the functions of each.
3. Discuss the major functions of bones.
4. Distinguish between the Axial and Appendicular skeletons, and name the parts of each.
5. Locate and identify the bones and the major features of the bones that compose the skull, vertebral column,          thoracic cage, pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, and lower limbs.
6. Classify joints and describe the actions of each.
8. Explain how skeletal muscles produce movements at joints, and identify several types of joint movements.
according to the type of tissue binding the bones together, describe their characteristics, and name examples of each.
7. Compare and contrast common skeletal disorders and diseases..
***To be successful with memorization-you must review daily up to 1 hour if the situation warrants...We will be singing, dancing, and reinforcing all lessons to fully succeed in memorization and application of body systems...Remember, our Frontal lobe is not fully developed until 25 yrs of age so I encourage you to review daily, as the course content increases in complexity,every quarter always integrating past knowledge...

Pd 1 A & P Strategies For Success.mp3

Pd 2 A & P Strategies for Success.mp3

Pd 3 A & P Stategies for Success.mp3

Pd 4 A & P Strategies for Success.mp3

Pd 6 A & P Strategies for Success.mp3

Human Anatomy Charts - Inner Body Anatomy, Muscle Anatomy, and Reproductive Anatomy

Thursday-10/31...Go to Ch 5-The Muscular System😊
Wednesday-10/30...CW: 'Let's Play Emergency Room Doctor'...Do you know your bones...Let's team up and test your knowledge...Must behave professionally and mature...
Let's Play Emergency Room Doctor...
HW: Read Ch 5.2...Always check web page daily!
Monday-10/28...CW: Final day 3 of Joint Movements video...MUST BE ENTIRE CLASS VIDEO...Always finish what you start...
***Pd 2 MAY NOT Go outside...All videos must be between 3-5 minutes and include ALL students for grade...
HW: Send me a copy to present tomorrow...
***Subs I choose act in a capacity to enforce my directions...
Tuesday-10/29-CW: Joints Video Presentation-3-5 minute video...
If you think you have what it takes to read bones on an X-ray'''let me know to join a team tomorrow...
***Bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black.
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 Do you know which bone is fractured?
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HW: Read Ch 5.1...
***We will use the video for the next project and extend it to include the Muscular System with dance moves...
***Look for the 'Help wanted' Ads to secure your position!
Friday-10/25...CW: Ch 4-Skeletal System Summative test...33Q = 100 pts...
HW: Monday will be Day 3-Final day of Joints video production...Always check webpage at least once daily...
Wednesday-10/23...1st class video coming up...
CW: Joint Movements...involves skeleto-muscular system-This will involve your 1st class video...All students actively engaged.
***Send an e-mail or Remind to apply for a position below...First come first serve...Only 1 applicant per position each class...
Video Example is Above:
Hiring Positions to be filled:
1. Director
Pd 1__Shania RD
Pd 2__Elle__________
Pd 3__Mia R
Pd 4__Akia G________
Pd 6__Emma P

2. Producer
Pd 1_Garrett M
Pd 2--Paityn
Pd 3__Nia J
Pd 4__Madison F
Pd 6__Kylie L

3. Screenwriter(Class script)
Pd 1__Abigail A
Pd 2__Leyla
Pd 3___MacKealie
Pd 4__Jhyra T________
Pd 6_Kyleigh C

4. Editor(Software)
Pd 1__Brianna T
Pd 2__Jaelyn M
Pd 3__Tinsley
Pd 4_Isis C
Pd 6___Josh H

5. Choreographer-(Dance and Song)
Pd 1__AJ _________
Pd 2__Mackenzie M
Pd 3__Gabriela BF
Pd 4_Kirah R
Pd 6___Roberto

6. Cinematographer( Camera)
Pd 1___Promise G
Pd 2_Haley C
Pd 3_Kamryn L_______
Pd 4_Ebelyn C
Pd 6_Jakiya N

***All must be IN the video except  the Cinematographer with Guest appearance.
***Must have Full scrolling Credits incl. Pd-Date-Names of members, etc..
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Elbow pronation
woman showing elbow pronation
Elbow Supination
woman showing elbow supination
Hip Abduction(taken away)
man showing Hip abduction
Hip Adduction(bringing to)
man showing Hip adduction
Knee Flexion then Extension
man showing knee flexion then extension
Left Ankle Inversion, then Eversion
man showing left ankle inversion then eversion
Wrist Radial Deviation
woman exhibiting wrist radial deviation
Wrist Ulnar Deviation

Woman showing wrist ulnar deviation

Opposition is the thumb movement that brings the tip of the thumb in contact with the tip of a finger. This movement is produced at the first carpometacarpal joint, which is a saddle joint formed between the trapezium carpal bone and the first metacarpal bone. Thumb opposition is produced by a combination of flexion and abduction of the thumb at this joint. Returning the thumb to its anatomical position next to the index finger is called reposition (see Figure below)

This multi-part image shows different types of movements that are possible by different joints in the body.


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Thursday-10/24...CW: Joints video day 2: Video production...
HW: Study for Ch 4-Skeletal Summative test...33Q = 100 pts...

***To know for the test...
1. 206 bones and sutures
2. Ribs and numbers
3. Adipose = Fat stored in Yellow marrow in bones
4. Know vocab: articulation, obturator foramen, acetabulum and spellings
5. Bones of Pelvis, hands, feet, vertebrae
6. Spinal curvatures
7. Synarthroses, Amphiarthroses, Diarthroses
8. Joint types and movements
9. Ligaments-bone to bone, Tendons-bone to muscle, Fascia-muscle to muscle
Monday-10/21...CW: Make-up quizzes...
Day 3-Skeletal Body tracing completed in class- no extra time...
How Graded:  if  time is  justified by the tracing-some students put more time and skill into their team project...is it accurate?is it drawn as directed.

HW: Ch 4.4 Joints tomorrow...Read and always check webpage at least once daily.
Tuesday-10/22...CW: Ch 4.4...Joints of the body...roughly 360 joints in the body-consists of tendons, ligaments, cartilage...
....short video on 6 types of joints...
***Video from today is above...Condyloid joint missing in video...
***Terms of movement video: 

HW: read ch 4.4 and check webpage at least once daily...
Joints of the body: a connection where bones meet...Textbook Ch 4.4-pages 138-141...
***Joint movements...(it's in ch 5 in our text but belongs in ch 4)...
***Fixed(Immovable)...Skull and pelvis...
a. Synarthroses...
a. Amphiarthroses-slightly movable...
b. Diarthroses-freely movable
Arthro = joint as in biology-organism as arthropod with jointed appendages-spiders, crustaceans...
***Hangman's Fracture- Know for test!
Hangman’s fracture is a fracture of the axis in the cervical region. It is often seen with people who try to hang themselves but also occurs in sports or traffic accidents. The fracture is in most cases lethal. The fracture is caused by an extreme force on the upper vertebrae and especially on the dens of the axis. The fracture causes damage to the spinal cord which leads to paralysis of respiratory muscles and most often death
File:Hangman's fracture.JPG

Joint-Where 2 bones articulate: made of cartilage, tendons, and/or ligaments...


-articulating surfaces flat or slightly curved
-sliding or twisting
ex. wrist and ankle bones, sternum to clavicle


-cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with ring of bone and ligament
-rotation around central axis
ex. atlas, axis, proximal articulation of radius and ulna


-surface of one bone articulates with concave surface of another
-flexion and extension
ex. elbow, phalanges


-concave surface in one direction and convex in another
-back and forth, side to side
ex. thumb, 1st metacarpal and trapezium


-oval-shaped condyle of one bone articulates with elliptical cavity of another
-variety of movements, no rotation
ex. metacarpals and phalanges

Ball and Socket

ball-shaped head of one bone articulates with cup-shaped cavity of another
-all planes and rotation
-hip and shoulder

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Friday-10/18...CW: Ch 4-Skeletal system formative quiz 2...25 Q = 50 pts...
HW: Read ahead to Ch 4.4 and always check webpage at least once daily...

***We complete body tracing Day 3 in class on Monday...When a deadline is given, you must do what you have to ...as a team or individual...to meet the deadline...
Wednesday-10/16...CW:PSAT pds 1-4...You may, by appt only, work on you body tracings during lunch B, C or D only today.
HW: Always stay ahead and review for the weekly assessment on Friday...

Thursday-10/17...CW: Skeletal tracing Day 2...
Rules to Follow-Day 2...
1. Continue drawing/labeling arms/legs...
2. Carefully pencil in Sternum and Ribs...
3. Only after ribs, plan your Vertebral column...
4. You MAY number neatly on ribs and vertebrae, ex. C1-L1-T1 etc.
5. Always work as a team...if a member is unavailable...fill in the slack and work as 2...
HW: Study for Ch 4 Formative quiz #2...Assessments will be more rigorous each time than the time before...
Monday-10/14...CW: Make-up quizzes...
***Above is Appendicular video from today...

2. Appendicular Skeleton = Pectoral Girdle...4 bones

                                          Upper limbs (arms)...60 bones

                                          Pelvic Girdle...2 bones

                                           Lower limbs (legs)...60 bones

       Total Appendicular = 126 bones...+ 80 bones = 206 Adult bones...

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***Acetabulum...A  concave depression-The head of the femur meets with the pelvis at the acetabulum, forming the hip joint.

***Obturator Foramen...The obturator foramen (Latin foramen obturatum) is the large opening created by the ischium and pubis bones of the pelvis through which nerves and blood vessels pass.
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Hands-Wrist-Fingers = 27 bones x2
Feet-Ankle-Toes = 26 bones x 2
***So as stated in class, 106 bones are in hands and feet of 206 bones...more than 50% bones found here...

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Talus...foot pivot bone like fulcrum of see saw 


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Tuesday-10/15...CW: Skeletal System Body 
ody Tracing day 1...
Anterior labeled on top...
Cranium-Thorax-Vertebral column...
1. Always trace in pencil then darken using black sharpie, only
2. Never write structure names  ON THE diagram, only with a ruler to the perimeter of the diagram...
3. Work as a team organizing your body movements not to be in a team member's space
4. Time is crucial...Your tracing must be completed per class standards in 3 days-NO MORE! Absenteeism, tardy must not deter you from completion-if one is absent, you must take on the job of two!!
5. Bring in my webpage photos(b & w) to use for correct spelling,# of bones, etc.
6. What you label on the LEFT, you must label on the RIGHT!
7. GRADE: based on teamwork, professionalism, accuracy, neatness,time mgmt,  and knowledge
***You can NOT obtain a max grade for failing to follow directions! Know your bones-check your team members for accuracy...Those that do more...receive more...

***You will only have 3 class periods to complete this as a group of 3...You may work towards completion before school by appt, after school M, T or Thursday by appt,  in pd 5 lunch B, C, or D with 5th teacher permission if you were absent or tardy with a pass. 
***Rules to follow with Tracing...Day 1...
Skull/Facial bones/arms/legs...
1. Outline first in pencil...Sharpie as you go...
2. Use the tools: rulers or meter sticks for straight lines...
3. Don't scribble labels-Make them neat and consistent on both sides...
4. Use parentheses for numbers...ex. Carpals(8)
5. Never label on the diagram-off to the sides...
6. Names/pd/date on back to find your tracing...

***Your grade will reflect attendance, participation, team spirit, and overall knowledge attained thus far...
Not completing the tracing for ANY reason other than medical, will result in a lower grade...
HW: read ch 4.4 and always check webpage daily...

***Tomorrow: 1 student draws and labels skull/facial bones, 1 student draws arm and hand bones, 1 student draws leg and foot bones...
Bring in skeleton labeled to use as reference and 1 tracing is up to use as a guide...
***You only get 3 days to complete so be in class...you have before school by appt, after school by appt, and lunch B,C and D by appt to work by yourself or with your group...Those who do more, get more!

Pd 1--Group
1...Helpers: Sahira, Bella, Sydney M
2. , Ashley, Kasmine, Brianna T
3. Abigail, Abner, Isobel
4. Kylie D, AJ, Attonya
5. Promise, Brianna H, Roselyn
6. Jasmine M, Sydney S, Avery P
7. Angelica, Garrett, Jaylin
8. Shania, Taylee, Mackenzie

1...Helpers: Paityn, Jaelynn, Gabriella Y, Joanne
2. Haley, Kylie, Paxton
3. Nevaeh.Morgan, Kayla A
4. Monica, Dominique, Gabrielle G
5. Victoria, Jennifer, Mackenzie
6. Adriana, Phaedra, Kamryn
7. Kaleb, Davion, Kimberly, Leyla

Pd 3-Group...
1. ***Helpers: Nia, Mia, Tinsley, Mackealie
2. Gabriela, Miaysia, Kamryn
3. Shakira, Ryanne, Kelsey
4. Tyshayla, Rayna, Marcus
5. Nathaniel, Alexander, Angel, Windjy
6. Alyssa, Kenya, May
7. Isabella, Savannah, Ariana

Pd 4- Group...
1...Helpers: Isis/Kristine/DJ.., Mia       
2...Molly, Kirah, Kyla                      
3...Akia, Kori, Wynter      
4...Trinidi, Jhyra, Sinai
5. Hannah, Lynette, Madison
6. Jonah, Alex, Anna
7. Ebelyn, Myra, Heilly

Pd 6 Group: 
1. Helpers: Emma, Kylie, Eszter, Andrea
2. Madison, Alicia, Alyssa
3. Tyler, Tyrus, Evan
4. Roberto, Josh, Aidan
5. Ladaysha, Breanna, Yesenia
6. Jakiya, Kyleigh, Eunice
Thursday-10/10...CW: Vertebral column...
HW: re-read ch 4.1 and 4.2...Ch 4 Formative Quiz tomorrow...
Vertebral; column video is above...
***Hyoid Bone: This  AXIAL bone supports the tongue and is in your anterior cervical(neck)...
Related image

***C1 = Atlas...allows neck to move head up and down...
 ...so C1 supports your entire body under your Occipital bone...
***Foramen Magnum...The largest opening in your body-spine passes through as it exits cranial cavity...
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***C2 =Axis

***Intervertebral Disk- between the vertebrae-Know structure 'Dens'...it articulates with the Atlas allowing side to side neck movement...
Image result for sciatic nerve in lumbar

STUDENTS: Print this Vertebral column diagram out in B & W to use tomorrow!!
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***Spinal Curvatures: Memorize!

***Scoliosis...'S' shaped spinal curvature
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***Kyphosis = Hunchback

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***Lordosis = Swayback

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Friday-10/11-CW: Ch 4 Skeletal Formative Quiz 1...
25Q = 50 pts...
HW: Read ahead to Ch 4.3 and check webpage several times/day for updates...
***There 'may' be an 'extra' help' quiz on my page this Saturday from about 12-5, only.... DO NOT e-mail me you can't see it, log on, weren't at home etc, etc...it is for whoever is available at the times designated...and it must be completed no later than 5:00 p.m...It will count regardless of the grade so take your time...it will help you stay ahead...
If it is received 1 minute late it will not be accepted...

***Ed Puzzle code: ask permission to attempt...If you can't work it...don't ask me!!!


***Do NOT expect me to answer any  problem messages as I informed you in class...This is the weekend!

Wednesday-10/9...CW: The Thorax: Sternum and Ribs...
Vertebral Column...
***Above is video from today...

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Students print out this unlabeled Sternum with Ribs to use tomorrow in class!!
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Vertebral column (Spine) = 26 bones (fused) or 33 unfused...

Vertebral column: 5 divisions to memorize:
1. Cervical vertebrae = 7
2. Thoracic vertebrae = 12
3. Lumbar vertebrae = 5
4. Sacral vertebrae(sacrum) = 5 fused = adult
5. Coccygeal(coccyx) = tailbone = 4 fused = 1 adult
Total vertebrae = 26...
***Remember C1 and C2-don't mix them up...C2 the axis has a process called the den that articulates with the atlas...
***Fact: Atlas was a titan who betrayed Zeus and was punished to bear the weight of the world on his shoulders...so our 1st vertebra is named Atlas because it supports our head, the center of our body...

***C1 = Atlas...allows neck to move head up and down...
 ...so C1 supports your entire body under your Occipital bone...
***Foramen Magnum...The largest opening in your body-spine passes through as it exits cranial cavity...
***C2 =Axis

***Intervertebral Disk- between the vertebrae-Know structure 'Dens'...it articulates with the Atlas allwing side to side neck movement..
STUDENTS: Print this V column diagram out in B & W to use tomorrow!!
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***Spinal Curvatures: Memorize!

***Scoliosis...'S' shaped spinal curvature
Image result for scoliosis

***Kyphosis = Hunchback

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***Lordosis = Swayback

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Ch 4-Podcast 1-Intro to Skeletal System-Pd 3-N ia.mp3

Monday-10/7...CW: Welcome to Quarter 2...
Intro to Skeletal System...
Short video...
HW: read ch. 4.1 and check web page...
***Below are the video links from today...
https://youtu.be/J8x6tZI2hVI   skeletal summary
https://youtu.be/q4vXr9IuPVc   anatomy of Long bone
***We will draw and label a long bone...
Ch 4.1  Vocabulary to Memorize
1. Articular cartilage
2. Bone marrow
3. Cortical bone(compact)
4. Diaphysis
5. Epiphyseal line-plate(growth)
6. Epiphysis
7. ***Hematopoiesis-formation of RBC's
8. Medullary cavity
9. Ossification
10. Osteoblasts
11. Osteoclasts
12. Osteocytes
13. Periosteum
14. Trabecular bone(spongy)

Overview of 5 bone types, long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid

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Tuesday-10/8...CW: 2 Skeletal Divisions...
HW: Read Ch 4.2 and memorize all 22 Cranial Bones...
Plan for pop quiz at any time...There are many words to memorize-206 bones and chapter vocabulary...
1. Axial Skeleton = 80 bones...
2. Appendicular Skeleton = 126 bones...
***Articulation: in anatomy, a joint (an area where two bones are attached for the purpose of motion of body parts).

Axial Skeleton...
Cranium = skull...
Thorax = chest...
Vertebral Column = spine...

Cranium = Skull= 22 total bones
8 Skull bones...
14 Facial bones...

The bones of the human skull, front and lateral

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***Some resources call the squamous suture squamosal...same structure...

***A process is an projection of bone...Below is Mastoid Process-mastoid has muscles attached for chewing which in anatomy is called 'Mastication' in the temporal bone...
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Mastoid process-neck muscles are attached...
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***Below is Zygomatic process in cheek...it's an extension of zygomatic bone...

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Axial Skeleton
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1. Axial Skeleton = Skull(Cranium)...22 Bones.. + 6 Middle ear bones - 28 bones...

 Hyoid Bone...1 Bone supports tongue

Vertebral column (spine,)...26 bones

 Thoracic Cage ...25 bones...

   Total Axial = 80 bones...

Appendicular Skeleton

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***You may always work on group projects before school, after school, pd 5 lunch B, C, or D enrichment  by appt only with teacher permission...or just get tutoring...
Skeletal Disorders Project 2.docx Skeletal Disorders Project 2.docx
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Below is the Ribs/Appendicular  video from today...
***Ribs Song...https://youtu.be/6ox6L9Jh0qQ
***Thoracic cavity song...https://youtu.be/1U4-7INTubY
***Appendicular song...https://youtu.be/uzxmKAWiN_U

*Bones song...https://youtu.be/2gerXkG_8ME
**pectoral girdle...https://youtu.be/TsGmzpm5PTI
***Hand and feet bones...https://youtu.be/oqVDH_gDleY
***Hand and feet song...https://youtu.be/28awd8-Rz04
***Foot Bones song...https://youtu.be/fvNS7mDW9p8
***Carpal bones song...https://youtu.be/LOkT9KOU8_A
each period will have a Director-Producer-Choreographer-Cinematographer...let the best video win!

Skeletal Project 2 Criteria:
***May do PPT or video not to exceed 2 minutes...
****For PPT: 8 slides max including title slide and references slide-title has names-date-pd-group # title and picture...
***Only bullets used-minimal text and real pic, not cartoon, on every slide...
***Do not include words you cannot pronounce or explain...
***For video: 2 min. describing your bone disorder/disease using pics if you can...
***If group member is absent...be prepared to pick up the slack and cover their part-know it all!!
***Will be in Media center Wed and present Thursday whether students are absent or not...