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***If you were absent for a midterm, you are expected to make it up the day you return 

***The 2nd Semester is More rigorous and challenging than the 1st semester-so improve your strategies for this class...

***Your text, notes, and this webpage are the only study guides you need...Anything extra is a plus...
How to read an eye chart....Snellen Eye chart...

20/20 vision is considered "normal" vision, meaning you can read at 20 feet a letter that most human beings should be able to read at 20 feet.

Videos from today are below...

***Eye chart video:

***Using an check ears for Cerumen and infection...

***Eye disorders:

***Otoscope video:

***Cerumen(earwax) video:

HW: always review and reread ch 1-2 in text...

Eye charts can be configured in various ways, but generally, if during an eye test you can read the big E at the top but none of the letters lower than that, your vision is considered 20/200. That means you can read at 20 feet a letter that people with "normal" vision can read at 200 feet. So at 20/200, your visual acuity is very poorExample of a Snellen eye chart and a tumbling E chart..Above is How a Snellen eye chart and a "tumbling E" chart might look at your eye doctor's office. The tumbling E chart tests the visual acuity of young children and others who can't read letters aloud. Sometimes they present symbols and pictures for children.

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Colorblindness is genetic and CARRIED on the X chromosome by the mom...passed down to the son...But the mom has 2 X chromosomes so there is a 50% chance .Carriers do not exhibit the trait-only carry it!The mom can pass it down to the daughter who again carries it and if she has a son, he has a 50% chance of being colorblind...and so on.
***Video and the Ishihara colorblind test...
HW: Review ch 3-4 in text and notes...
***As you notice, the test is specifically to identify red-green colorblindness...Blue-yellow colorblindness is extremely rare...
***About 8% of males, and 0.6% of females, are red-green color blind in some way or another, whether it is one color, a color combination, or another mutation.
***Deuteranopia-can only see 2-3 hues in contrast to the normal 7(ROYGBIV)...

Ishihara Color Blindness Test 1

Ishihara Color Blindness Test 8

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Podcast 12-Eye Anatomy-S Thomas.MP3

Memorize for Assessments!
***Olfaction: smell/nose...nerve II
***Optic/Opthalmic: eye/vision...nerve  II,III, IV, VI 
***Tactile: touch...replaced by sense Equilibrium
***Gustation: taste...nerve VII, IX, XII
***Lingual = tongue( ex. sublingual = under tongue)
***Papillae(plural)-bumps contain taste buds
***Auditory/Oto: Hearing/Ear...nerve VIII
***Touch: Meissner's corpuscles/Pacinian = Pressure
***Myringotomy-surgical incision into ear(tubes)
***Best eyesight, hearing and smell: Cats not dogs...
***Katman: red green colorblindness
***Tinnitus-ringing in ears
***Rhinitus(allergic)-inflammation of mucous membranes(produce histamines-take anti-histamines-Benadryl)

Baroreceptors(blood pressure)
Photoreceptors: light
Thermoreceptors: temperature
Mechanoreceptors-touch or sound
Chemoreceptors: chemicals-smell and taste
***Know if you add some nerve #'s, how to write in roman numerals using cranial nerves.

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Pd 1-Flatulence, Pd 2-Afterimages, Pd 3-5-Reaction Time
***You must improvise...Glass jars replaced by plastic cups...

***gelcaps used instead of tablets...
***Always use common sense and follow directions!

Lab 1: Know why simethicone is taken for gas relief(flatulence)...
Lab 2: The most interesting color afterimages are negative afterimages. If you stare at the red color for 30 seconds or more, the cells in your retina that respond to red will fatigue and will fire less. When you switch over to a white surface, your eyes subtract the red and you see its complementary color green.
Lab 3: 

***Because most kids have had infections in both ears, surgery is often done in both; this is called a bilateral myringotomy, or BMT. A tiny tube, called a pressure equalization (PE) or tympanostomy tube, is inserted into the eardrum to ventilate and equalize pressure in the middle ear.

***Otitis media: An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that contains the tiny vibrating bones of the ear. Children are more likely than adults to get ear infections.Young, crying child with a middle ear infection. Diagram of the location of the infected middle ear.

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***An otoscope or auriscope is a medical device which is used to look into the ears. Health care providers use otoscopes to screen for illness during regular check-ups and also to investigate ear symptoms. An otoscope potentially gives a view of the ear canal and tympanic membrane or eardrum.

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***Earwax, also known by the medical term cerumen, is a gray, orange, or yellowish waxy substance secreted in the ear canal of humans and other mammals. It protects the skin of the human ear canal, assists in cleaning and lubrication, and also provides some protection against bacteria, fungi, insects, and water.
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ear diagram to label

Podcast 11-The Eye-S Thomas.MP3

***Video from today-

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Podcast 10-Cranial nerves-R'riana and taliya.MP3

***Eye video from today...

***Here is a fun video on parts of the eye...

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***If a bright light hits your eyesyour pupils get smaller because you don't need that much light to see. Ah, but this one has a twist. Because bright light can damage the eyeyour pupils are also getting smaller to protect your retina.

***Shining a Light on Pupil Constriction. You've seen it on television: A doctor shines a bright light into an unconscious patient's eye to check for brain death. If the pupil constricts, the brain is OK, because in mammals, the brain controls the pupil.

***Whether eye dilation during an exam is necessary depends on the reason for your exam, your age, your overall health and your risk of eye diseases. The eye drops used for dilation cause your pupils to widen, allowing in more light and giving yourdoctor a better view of the back of your eye.

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***A cataract below,  is a clouding of the normally clear lens of your eye. For people who have cataracts, seeing through cloudy lenses is a bit like looking through a frosty or fogged-up window. Clouded vision caused by cataracts can make it more difficult to read, drive a car (especially at night) or see the expression on a friend's face.Surgery is recommended.
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***Bacterial Conjunctivitis(pink eye-contagious)

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